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Late South Old Fish River language
Pronunciation Unknown
Period ca. 1500BK - 500BK(?)
Spoken in Lower reach of Fish River, Bawim Islands
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system
Classification Ulitan
Western Ulitan
Fish River
South Fish River
Typology
Basic word order CP-V2, SOV
Morphology aggulating/fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Credits
Created by k1234567890y

PhonologyEdit

consonants
labials dento-alveolars palatals velars/glottal
nasals m n ŋ
plosives p b t d k g
fricatives s h
sonorants w r l j
vowels
front central back
high e~i
mid ə o~u
low a

Initial and final /h/ of the middle stage of Old Fish River language have been lost, and final /s/ of the middle stage of Old Fish River language has been debuccalized to /h/; also, final /r/ and /l/ were strengthened to /t/; moreover, /i/ and /u/ of the middle stage of Old Fish River language has been reduced and merged with /ə/, and /e/ and /o/ of the middle stage of Old Fish River language might have been raised to /i/ and /u/ respectively.

grammarEdit

word orderEdit

It is believed that they used a v2 word order similar to that of Standard German:

  • ri ekah kan pinam? - ri ek-ah ka-n pina-m - 2.SG see-PST.2.SG 1.SG-GEN friend-ACC - did you(plural) see my friend?
  • i tami kim mirari - i tam-i ki-m mirar-i - 3.PL can-3.SG/PL 1.PL-ACC kill-INF - they can kill us

NounsEdit

There were cases and numbers in nouns, it used a "standard"(accusative-marked) nominative-accusative alignment system with a differential object marking pattern based on animacy:

singular:

  • nominative: -Ø
  • genitive: -ən/-n
  • dative-locative: -əm/-m
  • accusative: -əm/-m(animate)/-Ø(inanimate)
  • ablative: -ək/-k
  • comitative-instrumental: -əp/-p

plural:

  • nominative: -i
  • genitive: -in
  • dative-locative: -im
  • accusative: -i
  • ablative: -ik
  • comitative-instrumental: -ip

however, the use of cases was diminishing, especially in the Bawim Islands varieties which eventually led to Old Uraki

VerbsEdit

Agreement:

present:

  • 1st sg: -im
  • 2nd sg: -it
  • 3rd sg: -i
  • 1st pl: -ik
  • 2nd pl: -ih
  • 3rd pl: -i

past:

  • 1st sg: -u
  • 2nd sg: -at
  • 3rd sg: -a
  • 1st pl: -ak
  • 2nd pl: -ah
  • 3rd pl: -a

subjunctive:

  • 1st sg: -ə
  • 2nd sg: -ut
  • 3rd sg: -utə
  • 1st pl: -uk
  • 2nd pl: -uh
  • 3rd pl: -ut

A new voice system has developed:

  • passive: ni-
  • Applicative(location): -an(placed before tense-agreement inflections)
  • Applicative(Instrumental): -ik(placed before tense-agreement inflections)
  • Applicative(Benefactive): ti-

the negation verb is always used to negate a sentence.