Old Uraki language
Pronunciation Unknown
Period ca. 1000 BK - 600 AK(?)
Spoken in Fish River region, Eastern Amutet
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system Uraki logogram
Classification Ulitan
Western Ulitan
Fish River
South Fish River
Basic word order SVO
Morphology isolating/aggulating
Alignment Neutral(Nominative-Accusative marked purely by word order)
Created by k1234567890y
Old uraki ca. 500BK

The red part is the maximum span of Old Uraki, circa 500 BK.

Old Uraki was a language spoken in the lower reach region of the Fish River, it is thought to be evolved from some dialects of late Old Fish River language.

Old Uraki was written in a logographic system called the Uraki logogram, but it seemed that Old Uraki was also written in a system derived from that used by some Amutetikam-speaking peoples.


labials dento-alveolars palatals velars/glottal
nasals m n ŋ
plosives p b t d k g*
fricatives s~h
sonorants w r l j
  • */s/ might have been debuccalized to [h], the debuccalization of /s/ was also reflected on foreign-loans.
  • */g/ might actually be [ɣ] between vowels in many dialects.
front central back
high i o~ʊ
mid ə
low a

/ŋ/ is transcripted as <ng>, /j/ is transcripted as <y>, /s~h/ is transcripted as <h>, /o~ʊ/ is transcripted as <u>.


word orderEdit

The word order was SVO, and it used prepositions rather than postpositions.


The old case-number inflection has largely been simplified, nouns only decline according to numbers:

  • Singular: -Ø
  • Plural: -i

The old plural system was declining, and a new plural system based on reduplication was rising; moreover, all plural forms were not mandatory, plurals were not used with numbers, and it was common not to use the plural forms at all.


Verbal tense and agreement system appeared in some inscriptions:


  • 1st sg: -im
  • 2nd sg: -it
  • 3rd sg: -i
  • 1st pl: -ik
  • 2nd pl: -ih
  • 3rd pl: -i


  • 1st sg: -u
  • 2nd sg: -at
  • 3rd sg: -a
  • 1st pl: -ak
  • 2nd pl: -ah
  • 3rd pl: -e


  • 1st sg: -u
  • 2nd sg: -ut
  • 3rd sg: -utə
  • 1st pl: -uk
  • 2nd pl: -uh
  • 3rd pl: -ut

In later Old Uraki, "ma-u", the subjunctive form of ma-i "to do", and its variants are often used as an aux verb for the subjunctive mood instead of the subjunctive agreements.

however, it seemed that in most dialects the tense-agreement system was reduced into a single tense system, the 3rd singular form was used for all persons and numbers:

  • Present: -i
  • past: -a
  • subjunctive: -ut~-u

besides the tense-aspect system, a new voice system was also developed:

  • Passive: ni-
  • Applicative(location): -an(placed before tense-agreement inflections)
  • Applicative(Instrumental): -ik(placed before tense-agreement inflections)
  • Applicative(Benefactive): ti-



  • 1st sg: ka/yam
  • 2nd sg: ra/yat
  • 3rd sg: a
  • 1st pl: ki
  • 2nd pl: ri
  • 3rd pl: i
  • reflexive: tu


  • who/what: ma


  • this: mi(pronominal form: ami)
  • that/the: ya(pronominal form: aya)
  • here: amim
  • there: ayam


It seemed that they had a base-10 system:

  1. one: məhu
  2. two: tahu
  3. three: alihu
  4. four: malihu
  5. five: ka-rik(same as the word for "hand")
  • ten: tarik
  • twenty: mənah
  • thirty: tarik alihu
  • forty: tarik malihu
  • fifty: tarik karik
  • sixty: tarik karik məhu
  • seventy: tarik karik tahu
  • eighty: tarik karik alihu
  • ninety: tarik karik malihu
  • hundred: tagatarik


  • and: i
  • or: tah
  • if: ham

Foreign wordsEdit

The influence of Amutetikam Languages can be seen in lexical level, below are some words that might be borrowed from Amutetikam Languages:

  • empire: ru-ahiat(cognate with proto-Amutetikam *ʔakʰεjat)
  • emperor: na-ahiam(cognate with proto-Amutetikam *ʔakʰεjam)
  • servant/assistant: na-anipah(cognate with proto-Amutetikam *ʔanεpas)
  • blue: akinal-i(<a-akinal-i)(cognate with proto-Amutetikam *ʔakεnal)
  • Mainland/the Amutet continent: ru-amitat(cognate with proto-Amutetikam *ʔamεtat)