The Proto-Ṭelö language is a reconstructed protolanguage for the Ṭelö language family in the north of Amalan.

Pronunciation Unknown
Period Unknown
Spoken in Unknown
Total speakers Unknown
Writing system Unknown
Classification Ṭelö
Basic word order SOV
Morphology Unknown
Alignment Unknown
Created by druneragarsh

Sounds Edit

The reconstructed phonology of Proto-Ṭelö is given below.

Labial Dental Velar
Nasal *m *n
Plain stop *p *t *k
Ejective stop *ṗ *ṭ *ḳ
Fricative *s *ḷ *x
Approximant *l *j
Trill *r

*j was realized as [j] in front-harmonic words and [ɰ] in back-harmonic words. *ḷ is a lateral fricative /ɬ/.

Front Back
Close *i *ü *ı *u
Mid *e *ö *ȩ *o
Open *a

Proto-Ṭelö had front-back vowel harmony. The archiphonemes in case endings will be represented as *I, *U, *E, *O, and *A.

Grammar Edit

Proto-Ṭelö had SOV word order and was strongly head-final. The dual marker was *-k and the plural marker was *-t.

Morphology Edit

Epenthetic vowels Edit

In Proto-Ṭelö, the dual and plural, most verbal conjugation, and some cases were formed by a bare consonant. However, the syllable structure did not allow for coda consonant clusters, so vowels were inserted. The first vowel was always *A, after which typically came *E and then *I, but there is some evidence that speakers would use the sequence *A *O *E *U *I when the amount of consonant-suffixes grew large.

Nouns Edit

Nouns decline in suffixing cases.

Verbs Edit

Proto-Ṭelö verbs conjugate with both the subject and the object. The subject conjugation comes before the object conjugation.

With the verb ṗoŋka, "to see":

Subject conjugation

Person Singular Dual Plural
1 ṗoŋkam ṗoŋkamak ṗoŋkamaṭ
2 ṗoŋkan ṗoŋkanak ṗoŋkanaṭ
3.1 animate ṗoŋkas ṗoŋkasak ṗoŋkasaṭ
3.2 animate ṗoŋkaḷ ṗoŋkaḷak ṗoŋkaḷaṭ
3 inanimate ṗoŋkak ṗoŋkakak ṗoŋkakaṭ

Object conjugation

Person Singular Dual Plural
1 ṗoŋkal ṗoŋkalak ṗoŋkalaṭ
2 ṗoŋkar ṗoŋkarak ṗoŋkaraṭ
3.1 animate ṗoŋkaṗ ṗoŋkaṗak ṗoŋkaṗaṭ
3.2 animate ṗoŋkaṭ ṗoŋkaṭak ṗoŋkaṭaṭ
3 inanimate ṗoŋkaḳ ṗoŋkaḳak ṗoŋkaḳaṭ

Example: ṗoŋkamakȩrıṭ, "the two of us saw you-plural" (ṗoŋka + m + k + r + ṭ), with appropriate epenthetic vowels.

Lexicon Edit

The reconstructed lexicon consists of a few words. Numerals below:

Nr Cardinal Ordinal
1 *ḷirä
2 *tȩsa *ḳora
3 *kärä ḷiräti
4 *kärä
5 *kora kärä
6 *kärä tȩsaka
7 *telö ḷiräti
8 *telö

The numerals are derived from Proto-Ṭelö vocabulary words:

Ṭelö English
*ḷirä finger
*tȩsa pair
*kärä hand
*telö person