Not known
Pronunciation Not applicable
Period 9500BK
Spoken in Ndelodhe Archipelago
Total speakers 0 (5,000 at peak)
Writing system petroglyphs, cave paintings, (later) proto-writing
Classification Tsinya-Marawo
Basic word order OSXV
Morphology Fusional
Alignment ERG-ABS
Created by YourFace

Proto-Marawo is the attested common ancestor of the Marawo language family. It resides on the Ndelodhe Archipelago in the Hanaic islands.

Phonology Edit

The phonology of Proto-Marawo is much debated. This is the most popular reconstruction, by famous scholar [INSERT NAME HERE].

Consonants Edit

Lab. Den. Alv. Ret. Palatal Vel. Glot.
Nasal m n ŋ (ng)*
Stop p b mp mb t d nt nd k g ŋk ŋg*
Affricate ts dz nts tʂ (č)
Fricative f v mf ð s z ʂ (š) x h
Approximant w j (y)
Tap/Flap ɽ (r)
Lateral Approximant ɫ

*These are allophones, but generally, ŋ is at the end of a word, and ŋg i is everywhere else.

Vowels Edit

Front Central Back
Close i i: u u:
Close-Mid o o:
Mid ə
Open-Mid ɛ ɛ:
Open a a:

Stress and syllable timing Edit

Stress in Proto-Marawo is penultimate, on the stem (i.e. suffixes are never stressed), and on long vowels as well as the first vowel in a diphthong. The language is also stress-timed.

Morphology Edit

Verbs Edit

The verbs in Proto-Marawo decline by person and tense. there are 4 persons (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th [refers to a non-present person], represents the subject) and 5 tenses (remote past, near past, present, near future, remote future). Verbs could also have and additional suffix for evidentiality.

Tense-Person Edit



1 -zivo -zumo -zuyo -zinə / zine
2 -vavo -vumo -vuyo -vnə / vne
3 -lovo -lumo -laga -luyo -lonə / lone
4 -revo -fumo -raga -fuyo -renə / rene

in the fourth person, final vowels in the root are deleted if the final vowel is /a/.

Imperfect verb form Edit

Verbs are perfect by default. The imperfect form of a verb is formed by adding the particle ez before the verb. Example: bowod mang ngilezumo "I wanted those" vs bowod mang ez ngilezumo "I had wanted those."

Evidentials Edit

  • Witness: -Ø
  • Nonvisual sensory: -k
  • Visual sensory: -nda
  • Reportative: -hāya
  • Inferential: -yong
  • Assumed: -ya
  • Stories: -ge

Thus, you could take the verb yama "hunt" and it could become yamavnenda "I will see you hunt someday."

Nouns Edit

Nouns decline by case and number (null, singular, dual, paucal, plural). There are two types of declensions; one for nouns ending in vowels, and one for nouns ending in consonants. Pronouns decline in the same way nouns do.

Vowel-final Edit

ABS -d -s -wo -z
ERG -ng -ya -za -z
GEN -n -rsa -v -[+long] -[+long]
DAT -l -ða -yo -fə -fə
INST -p -ro -və -nə -nə

Consonant-final Edit

ABS -ed -es -az
ERG -eng -e -ei -ez -az
GEN -ein -ersa -ev -i -i
DAT -el -et -eg -ef -ef
INST -ep -er -en -en
Thus, you could produce the sentence čubeyaro mangi, mangaz mbagaza yamazaga, which means "With my spear, I hunt some bears."

Some nouns in Proto-Marawo are collective, or mass nouns. Despite being plural, this noun class takes the singular endings. Example: dawng "crop (pl)" > dawnger "with rice (pl)."

Pronouns Edit

The pronouns of Proto-Marawo work much like Proto-Indo-European pronouns. There's no third person, with deictic pronouns used instead. Pronouns have three forms: male, female, neuter. They take all noun endings.

First person Second person
Male mang čong
Neuter mi čoi
Female mad čod

Reflexives Edit

Proto-Marawo has the reflexive pronoun , which could appear in the object position. It implies that the subject and object are the same. When before approximants /y/ and /w/, the /ə/ changes to /i/ or /u/ respectively; example: diya ma kudo "I wash myself."

Non-specific pronouns Edit

  • Them: nga
  • Those: enza
  • That: bo
  • Who: du
  • What: der

Forming questions Edit

In formal speech, basic questions are formed by adding the particle ki to the beginning of the sentence; Answers have the particle nōng. In informal speech, questions are simply formed with a raised tone in the sentence. Example: ki šavak mbagarsa du mazefumo? "Who ate [the] bear meat?". You could then answer with nōng šavak mbagarsa ma mazezumo "I ate [the] bear meat."

Lexicon: Edit

Numbers: Edit

Number Proto-Marawo
1 ama
2 šama
3 dama
4 yaða
5 yava
6 yavāma
7 yašama
8 yadama
9 yavaða
10 šamava
20 yaðava

Animals: Edit

Animal Proto-Marawo
cat mayar
dog huyo
crab kizə
bear mbaga
bird digə
fish egeya