Proto-Marawo is the attested common ancestor of the Marawo language family. It resides on the Ndelodhe Archipelago in the Hanaic islands.
The phonology of Proto-Marawo is much debated. This is the most popular reconstruction, by famous scholar [INSERT NAME HERE].
|Stop||p b mp mb||t d nt nd||k g ŋk ŋg*|
|Affricate||ts dz nts||tʂ (č)|
|Fricative||f v mf||ð||s z||ʂ (š)||x||h|
*These are allophones, but generally, ŋ is at the end of a word, and ŋg i is everywhere else.
|Close||i i:||u u:|
Stress and syllable timing Edit
Stress in Proto-Marawo is penultimate, on the stem (i.e. suffixes are never stressed), and on long vowels as well as the first vowel in a diphthong. The language is also stress-timed.
The verbs in Proto-Marawo decline by person and tense. there are 4 persons (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th [refers to a non-present person], represents the subject) and 5 tenses (remote past, near past, present, near future, remote future). Verbs could also have and additional suffix for evidentiality.
|1||-zivo||-zumo||-Ø||-zuyo||-zinə / zine|
|2||-vavo||-vumo||-vuyo||-vnə / vne|
|3||-lovo||-lumo||-laga||-luyo||-lonə / lone|
|4||-revo||-fumo||-raga||-fuyo||-renə / rene|
in the fourth person, final vowels in the root are deleted if the final vowel is /a/.
Imperfect verb form Edit
Verbs are perfect by default. The imperfect form of a verb is formed by adding the particle ez before the verb. Example: bowod mang ngilezumo "I wanted those" vs bowod mang ez ngilezumo "I had wanted those."
- Witness: -Ø
- Nonvisual sensory: -k
- Visual sensory: -nda
- Reportative: -hāya
- Inferential: -yong
- Assumed: -ya
- Stories: -ge
Thus, you could take the verb yama "hunt" and it could become yamavnenda "I will see you hunt someday."
Nouns decline by case and number (null, singular, dual, paucal, plural). There are two types of declensions; one for nouns ending in vowels, and one for nouns ending in consonants. Pronouns decline in the same way nouns do.
Some nouns in Proto-Marawo are collective, or mass nouns. Despite being plural, this noun class takes the singular endings. Example: dawng "crop (pl)" > dawnger "with rice (pl)."
The pronouns of Proto-Marawo work much like Proto-Indo-European pronouns. There's no third person, with deictic pronouns used instead. Pronouns have three forms: male, female, neuter. They take all noun endings.
|First person||Second person|
Proto-Marawo has the reflexive pronoun də, which could appear in the object position. It implies that the subject and object are the same. When before approximants /y/ and /w/, the /ə/ changes to /i/ or /u/ respectively; example: diya ma kudo "I wash myself."
Non-specific pronouns Edit
- Them: nga
- Those: enza
- That: bo
- Who: du
- What: der
Forming questions Edit
In formal speech, basic questions are formed by adding the particle ki to the beginning of the sentence; Answers have the particle nōng. In informal speech, questions are simply formed with a raised tone in the sentence. Example: ki šavak mbagarsa du mazefumo? "Who ate [the] bear meat?". You could then answer with nōng šavak mbagarsa ma mazezumo "I ate [the] bear meat."